The Cameroon (pronounced in French: [kamʁun]) 4, officially the Republic of Cameroon, enanglais Republic of Cameroon, is a country in Central and West Africa, located between the Nigeriaa west, Chad to the north, Central African Republic to the east, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea and the Republic of Congo to the south and the Gulf of Guinea in the southwest.
Before the colonial period, people did not form one homogenous group and had several forms of social organization ranging from structured kingdoms of nomadic tribes. The ancient kingdoms (Bamun, Adamawa, Garoua) succeeds in the nineteenth century the German colony, which at the end of the First World War, is under the supervision of the League of Nations entrusted to the administration of France ( east) and the UK (west). The former territory under French administration became independent under the name Republic of Cameroon on 1 January 1960. He is joined by part of the territory under British administration (Cameroon) in October 1961 to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon, which, on 20 May 1972 was renamed the united Republic of Cameroon and the Republic of Cameroon depuis1984. Like most African states, Cameroon and its current borders therefore the result of European colonization.
Cameroon is now a member of Law of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie and the Commonwealth.
Cameroon is called "Africa in miniature" 5 because of its climate, geographic, human and cultural.
• Administrative 3Subdivisions
o Land 4.1Frontières
o 4.2Le Relief
o 4.3Le climate
o 5.2Les sectors
o informal 5.3L'économie
o 5.4Les communications infrastructure
o 5.5Lutte against corruption
• 6Population and society
o 6.2Niveau life and HDI
o cultural 7.1Diversité
o artistic 7.2Diversité
o 8.1Quelques attractions
o 9.1Fêtes and holidays
• 11Notes and references
• 12See also
o External 12.2Liens
History [edit | modify the code]
Main article: History of Cameroon and Contemporary History of Cameroon.
The first inhabitants of Cameroon were probably the Baka hunter-gatherers, desnomades also known as Pygmies. But from the first millennium BC. AD have developed sedentary societies of farmers and breeders, so maybe from the Sahara in dedésertification way and Bakas were pushed into the forests of the southern provinces and is where we find them again . Among the sedentary, those in the southwest of the current Cameroon and the southeast of Nigeria are the oldest documented as using Bantu languages these languages are then spread itself through much of western sub-Saharan Africa, up 'South Africa, probably along agriculture6. The first historical reference to the Cameroon coast would be in the journey narrative Hannon said, in a very textegrec discussed. In the fifth century BC. BC, Carthaginians it would have reached Mount Cameroon he called the Chariot of the Gods. But this text is controversial because rough translation from the Phoenician and especially because there is no archaeological evidence that the Carthaginians have gone south of Essaouira7.
However, it is certain that, in 1472, the Portuguese navigator Fernando Póosont sailors entered the Wouri estuary, raving abundance of shrimp in the river they call back immediately Río Camarões (river shrimp). English sailors adopted the name in the anglicized (Cameroons), hence the current name of Cameroon.
After the Portuguese came the Dutch and the Germans. By contacts with lesEuropéens and Sahelian (Kingdom of Kanem-Bornu) start regular trade. The development of the slave trade, either Western or Eastern, dissemination duchristianisme the south and Islam from the north, profoundly changing societies of Cameroon, favoring organized groups have adopted a monotheistic religion and able to procure firearms, to the detriment of the previous political organization (as theKingdom Bamun).
Territorial Evolution of Cameroon (1901 - 1962).
Ostensibly to protect their business interests, the Germans set LE5 July 18848 protectorate called Kamerun. To ensure the economic development of the protectorate, the Germans embark on major works: road construction and the first railway line, starting from the port of Douala work, building schools and hospitals, creation of large plantations (cocoa, banana, coffee, rubber, palm oil ...). But the natives are mostly subjected to forced labor and corporal punishment. As for Baka, they are trapped and studied like animals; some are sent to Germany to be shown, caged in coloniales9 exhibitions. Germans lose their colony because of their defeat in the Great War, in 1918; the League of Nations then entrusted the eastern part (the largest) in France and the western zone (two neighboring pockets of Nigeria) in the UK. Each of these two countries its mark in its Cameroon, France adopting the policy of assimilation and the UK that of indirect rule.
After the Second World War, the movement of the UPC (Union of the Peoples of Cameroon), headed by Ruben Um Nyobé, claims independence and reunification before being banned and repressed by the French in Bassa country and Bamiléké ( "bamiléké war"). The independence of the French zone was proclaimed on 1 January 1960, Cameroon became the first of the 18 African colonies to gain independence in 196010. The reunification takes place the following year with the southern part of the British zone, Nord party had opted for union with Nigeria. It follows a period of violent repression against the movement of the UPC, and the KNLA, its "national Kamerounaise Liberation Army" by the new government with the assistance of France, which will last until the end 196011. years Kamerun According to the book! A hidden war Françafrique12 the origins of these are French officers who, in the 1960s, secretly directed the law enforcement operations conducted by the Cameroonian army against the last bastions of the insurgency upéciste, mainly in the West from the country. Torture, force grouping of populations, extrajudicial executions, psychological warfare, the methods used are those of France during the war in Algeria, which are gradually transmitted by the French military to their Cameroonian counterparts, particularly within the Joint military school of Cameroon (EMIAC) headed during this period by french officers trained in the doctrine of the revolutionary war (DGR). May 20, 1972, a referendum led to a unitary state and terminates the federalism.
In the late 1990s, Canadian "junior companies" invested in more than 8000 mineral properties in more than 100 countries, most still in the state project13 multiply contracts with African countries including Cameroon where Mega Uranium concessions on 4654 km2 14. US Ambassador to Cameroon, Niels Marquardt organized the trip of Prime Minister Ephraim Inoni in summer 2007 in the US, in which his delegation was oriented Canadian mining companies, American, English and australiennes15.
Politics [edit | modify the code]
Palace of the unit - Presidency of the Republic of Cameroon.
Main article: Politics in Cameroon.
Cameroon is a republic presidential kind. Executive power is concentrated around duprésident and controlled by Paul Biya since 1982. Legislative power is exercised by two chambers, National uneAssemblée and Senate, the Senate is set up since 14 May 2013 is often referred to the regime as a "démocrature" to the extent that Cameroon's political system is more of a procedural democracy; under the institutional trappings operation has prioridémocratique, the reality of the exercise of power is that of a dictatorship that does not allow that call into question its authority and forcefully represses any hint of political or social protest. Moreover, political power exacerbates the tribal and regional rivalries to appear as the only guarantor of peace and consolidate its position. For example, the Constitution adopted by the National Assembly in 1996 to take the necessary pretext of minority protection to refer, in the fundamental law of the concepts of "indigenous" and "alien" is introducing a stratification of citizens depending on the region of origin and that of residence, region of origin is understood as that which relates the surname that is to say the one inhabited by the ancestors during the pre-colonial period.
On 10 April 2008, the National Assembly adopted the bill on the constitutional amendment with 157 votes in favor, 5 against and 15 not voting. This project is very critiqué16 adopted by political opposition parties as it allows Paul Biya to claim a fourth term at the end of his term in 2011.
October 9, 2011, Paul Biya was re-elected through the presidential election in the first ballot with 77.99% of votes. LE9 December 2011, there is a new government headed by Prime Minister Philemon Yang, who succeeds himself.
Throughout the territory, traditional leaders have retained real power and are consulted by the central authorities. Besides the modern legal codes from international law, the legal regulation is based on customary law which allows Cameroonians to maintain their original cultures. It is not uncommon for son of royal dynasties, Lamibe or sultans, have ministerial responsibilities in Yaoundé. Cameroon is also a member of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Francophonie. The extract of Loyno, Kirov Oblast Project 962 / LDPP / AN adopted by the National Assembly and punishing death penalty who dares to oppose the regime by manifestation of any kind whatsoever, ranks Cameroon in a dictatorship type of government.
administrative subdivisions [change | modify the code]
Main article: Subdivisions of Cameroon and Cameroon Cities.
Cameroon is a melting pot of many ethnic groups (there are 280) with some great sets (Semitic, Hamitic, Bantu, Semi-Bantu and Sudan) and many interbreeding.
Administratively, Cameroon now has ten regions themselves divided into 58 departments. The departments are divided into districts. The regions were created following a presidential decree on 12 November 2008. Until then it was dealing with the "provinces" or "districts" 17.
The 10 regions of Cameroon and their capitals and languages
No. Region Number of County seat
Languages departments officielles18
5 French (majority)
4 Far North
7 English (majority)
Geography [edit | modify the code]
Main article: Geography of Cameroon.
Satellite image of Cameroon.
Cameroon is a country in the Gulf of Guinea on the west coast of Africa. It has 590 km19de very rugged coastline along the Atlantic Ocean. Extensive latitude (1200 km from north to south), the country schematically the shape of a triangle whose base along the second degree of north latitude, while the top waterfront of Lake Chad, reached the 13th parallel. Cameroon is surrounded by the following countries and bodies of water:
• Nigeria and the Atlantic Ocean to the west;
• Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and Republic of Congo to the south;
• Central African Republic and Chad to the east;
• Lake Chad in the north.
Borders of Cameroon
By area of 475,442 km220 and its population of about 19,598,889 inhabitants in 2010, Cameroon is a medium-sized country in Africa.
The country lies between the southern edge of the Sahara and the northern limit of the Congo Basin forest équatorialedu south. The west is dominated by highlands, and includes the highest mountain in all of West Africa: Mount Cameroon, which rises to 4 meters 07021; This is the ninth highest peak in Africa. The east of the country is covered in its great majority of Equatorial uneforêt still well preserved. Along its 590 km of coastline, there are several seaside resorts: Kribi and Limbe near Mount Cameroon.
land borders [change | modify the code]
• 1 690 km with Nigeria
• 1094 km with the Chad
• 797 km with the Central African Republic
• 523 km with the Republic of Congo
• 298 km with Gabon
• 189 km with Equatorial Guinea
A prawn fished in Limbe, near the mouth of the Wouri, whose name in Portuguese, camarão, would have given the name: Cameroon.
The relief [change | modify the code]
• The lowlands: the bowl of Mamfe (Southwest), the basin of the Benue and northern plain
• Trays: Southern Cameroon, with an average altitude of 650 m, and Adamawa - the water tower of Cameroon - whose average altitude is 1000 m22 but rising to 2650 m23 .
• The highlands of the West: a raised plinth block and covered with basalt effusions located in an arc called the Cameroonian ridge. The summits are from 1 500 to 4 000 meters. The most massive known are the Mandara Mountains (Far North), Alantika (North) and volcanoes still in activity Oku (Northwest) and Mount Cameroon (South West), which is at 4095 m above sea level, the highest point in western Africa.
Climate [change | modify the code]
• The equatorial area, characterized by abundant rainfall, high and stable temperatures and vegetation is degrading gradually as one moves away from the equator. We distinguish between the Centre and South trays with four distinct seasons: rainy season (March to June), short dry season (July and August), rainy season (September-November), large dry season (December to February), and the Western area (Littoral, Southwest mountains and high plateaus West) with excessive rains that fall for 9 consecutive months from March to November.
• The tropical area, with high temperatures and scarce rainfall, type is Sudanese (a rainy season from May to October, the dry season from November to April) or Sahel, marked by highly irregular rainfall, but absent from December to March.
The lower temperatures are 17 to 18 degrees and higher from 30 to 32 degrees.
Economy [edit | modify the code]
Main articles: Economy of Cameroon, Cameroonian companies list and Agriculture Cameroon.
Yaounde Sports Palace
Generality [change | modify the code]
From 1965 to 1985, Cameroon has experienced sustained growth (over 15% per year on average), driven by commodity prices, and has long been among the most prosperous countries in Africa. The economic situation then deteriorated sharply until the devaluation in January 1994 the CFA franc, preceded by a drastic reduction of salaries of around 70%. After a decade of recession characterized by a strong decline in GDP (-30% between 1985 and 1993) and a 40% fall in consumption per capita, Cameroon has returned to economic growth since 1994. Its GDP (about 42.750 billion dollars in 2009, or $ 2,300 per capita in PPP) is now half that of the economic and monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC), which gives it an important role at regional level. In terms of imports, the main economic partners of Cameroon are France (19.1%), China (13.3%), Nigeria (12.4%). For exports, are Spain (15.1%), the Netherlands (12.8%), China (9.4%), Italy (9.3%), France (6.5 %) and the US (6.4%) in 2010.2 the public debt represents 14.3% of GDP (2009), while foreign debt is about 2.929 billion dollars (est. 2009) 2 .
Business areas [change | modify the code]
The country has agricultural natural resources (bananas, cocoa, coffee, cotton, honey), forestry, mining (bauxite, iron, cobalt, nickel, manganese, diamond, marble) and oil; junior mining companies in Vancouver or Toronto deem it "will be a major mining country in the years to come" 24.La active population was divided in 2010 between primary (19.7%), industrial (31, 4%) and tertiary (48.9%) 2.
The informal economy [change | modify the code]
75% of the urban labor force would work in the informal sector and 6 in 10 households would derive at least part of their income from the informal sector. The importance of the informal sector tends to grow more and more since the economic crisis. It would partially solve the problem of unemployment (20% of the population in 1995 to 30% in 2003). In 2011, the unemployment rate has fallen and is estimated at 13.1% 2.
Communications infrastructure [edit | modify the code]
Main article: Transport in Cameroon.
• Roads: the Cameroon has 50 000 km of roads, of which 6000 paved.
• The rail network totals 1,020 km of railways with the line of Transcameroonian Camrail managed by the company.
• Ports: Three major ports are active, starting with the Port of Douala. The ports of Limbe and Kribi are largely financed by the Chinese Investment Bank and are destined to become deepwater ports to accommodate ships with deeper draft than accessing water in Douala today. Cameroon has several ports, the most important are those deDouala and Limbe. It also has a seasonal river port in Garoua (river Benue). The project to build a deep water port at Kribi is running according to plan and will complete the 1st phase of work in June 2014.
• Airports: Cameroon has four international airports (Douala, Yaoundé-Nsimalen, Garoua and Maroua) and ten secondary airports. In 2008, the national carrier Cameroon Airlines went bankrupt. His successor, Camair-Co, made its first flight on March 28, 2011. There are some private companies of modest size whose fleet is limited to one or two carriers with less than 50 seats serving mainly inland.
Fight against corruption [change | modify the code]
Main article: Corruption in Cameroon.
There is corruption in Cameroon, as in all countries of the world. We find in practice the highest levels of the state until the official end of the scale. Everyday corruption is qualified by many names: Tchoko, beer, taxi, fuel, motivation and others. Despite its natural potential, mineral and enormous human, Cameroon still suffers from several ailments that prevent real economic growth: corruption, a negative energy output relative to demand, insufficiently treated public finances, attractiveness for private and foreign capital investments down compared to other countries, an often debilitating bureaucracy. Added to this is a mismatch between youth education and the needs of the labor market exacerbating unemployment and large informal sectors. Cameroon has the ambition to become an emerging country by 2035 and why launched many projects to revive the economy and reduce corruption [ref. necessary].
Population and Society [change | modify the code]
Demographics [edit | modify the code]
Main article: Demographics of Cameroon.
Demographic changes between 1961 and 2003. Population in thousands, Data FAOSTAT 2005.
The population of Cameroon is estimated in 2015 to 20 million inhabitants. Upon independence in 1960, Cameroon had just over five million inhabitants.
In 2001, 6 cities exceeded the threshold of 200 000 inhabitants: Douala (the economic capital, 1.5 million in 2001), Yaoundé (the political capital and seat of the institutions, about 1.25 million people in 2001 ) Garoua (about 357 000 in 2001), Bamenda (about 316 000 in 2001), Maroua (about 272 000 in 2001) and Bafoussam (about 242 000 in 2001).
However, population estimates vary according to sources. According to the government daily Cameroon Tribune (based on weekly special folders in a city of the country in the years 2008 and 2009), the ten most populous cities are Douala (2.2 million inhabitants), Yaoundé ( 1.7 million), Garoua (600,000), Bafoussam (400,000) Nkongsamba (300,000), Bamenda (280,000), Edea (250,000), Kribi (220,000), Maroua (220 000) and N ' ngaoundéré (200,000). The Cameroon count total twenty cities with at least 50,000 residents.
According to the results of the last recensement25, Cameroon still has slightly more women (50.6%) than men (49.4%). Half the population is under 17.7 years and the demographic weight of under 15 is 43.6%. People aged over 60 account for only 5.5% of the population totale25.
Despite steadily growing urban population, a majority (55% to 65% according to estimates) of the population lives in rural areas.
The most densely populated provinces (over 100 inhabitants per km²) are the western provinces, Littoral, Far North and Northwest. For cons, the provinces of Adamawa, East and South are sparsely populated (less than 15 inhabitants per km²).
Table data on the geographical distribution of the population Cameroun25.
No. Region County town Population Area Population Density
884 289 63 701 13.9
3 098 044 68 953 44.9
771 755 109 002 7.1
4 Far North
3 111 792 34 263 90.8
2 510 283 20 248 124.0
1 687 859 66 000 25.5
1 728 953 17 300 99.9
1 720 047 13 892 123.8
634 855 47 191 13.4
1 318 079 26 410 51.8
Cameroon Yaounde 17 465 956 648 320 26.94
Standard of living and HDI [change | modify the code]
The UNDP ranks Cameroon 152nd globally to 186 countries in 201 226, with a Human Development Index (HDI) equal to 0.504 in 2013. This ranking is based on socio-economic data such as education, health or per capita income. It provides an estimate of the general standard of living of a country. For Cameroon, it has improved between 1980 and 2013, from 0.391 to 0.504.
• Index of human development
Evolution of the HDI since 198026
Year 1980 1990 2000 2005 2008 2010 2011 2012 2013
HDI 0.391 0.440 0.433 0.457 0.477 0.493 0.498 0.501 0.504
• Human poverty index (HPI-1): 47 of 88 developing countries (HPI-1 of 30.7%).
According to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the Human Poverty in Cameroon in the year 2004 is 35.6% of the total population. Poverty is much more present in the country (70%), while urban poverty affects nearly 2 million people, mainly in Yaounde and Douala. Half of the households not connected to the electricity grid and the third has no access to water potable27. The sanitation of cities, provided by the company HYSACAM (hygiene and sanitation of Cameroon), is not yet sufficient to eradicate diseases such as malaria, cholera and others. This is due to financial resources that prove limited, but especially the backward thinking of the people who are struggling to cooperate with the authorities for the evolution of safety in neighborhoods. However, there is an improvement of the collective sanitation and hygiene conditions of families. Furthermore, we witness the development of insecurity and delinquency of street children. The under-employment rate meanwhile exceeds the 35% threshold in the big cities, prompting many people to fall back into small jobs.
Health [edit | modify the code]
Main article: Health in Cameroon.
Cameroon's health system is still at a low level. According to WHO, there would be a doctor per 10 400 inhabitants. Note also an unequal distribution of medical services in the country, and these are remote areas of the Far North and the East who suffer the most.
In 2009, an estimated 610,000 reported cases of HIV and AIDS. It was found about 37 000 deaths as a result of these maladies28.
Education [edit | modify the code]
Main articles: Education in Cameroon, Higher Education in Cameroon and List of Cameroonian schools.
The education system has three types of education: basic education, secondary education and higher education. The special feature of the education system is bilingual, indeed, one can study in French and English degrees equivalent. Education is framed by two major types of instruction:
• Public education: within the domain of the State
• private education made private (secular and religious)
There are hundreds of breast-school, primary, secondary. In major urban centers, literacy is almost universal while some regions of Cameroon, particularly the northern part, still suffer from low literacy, which does not prevent the country display a literacy rate about 80% according to UNICEF (one of the highest rates in Africa) or 70% according to CIA World factbook. However, the country is facing a shortage of teachers, often not well trained or unmotivated by then a very modest remuneration.
The entrance to kindergarten is generally at the age of three years. The nursery and primary cycle lasts 8 years, resulting in obtaining a CEP (primary school certificate).
Access to secondary education is usually done through an entrance said competition in 6th grade. It should be noted that in Cameroon, the term "school" means a public institution, while the term "college" is awarded to a private institution. The secondary cycle lasts 7 years and is sanctioned in its course by three degrees: the BEPC (First Cycle of Studies Certificate) issued after completing the first four years, the Probatoire (First Level) and the Bachelor (Level Terminal) , giving access to university studies.
On average, primary and secondary schools during the hours are Monday to Friday from 7:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., with a one hour break at noon, with the exception of Wednesday when prices stop at 12:30. In many institutions, courses are also offered on Saturday morning, according to education level (generally examination classes).
The school year is traditionally held on the first Monday in September (unless it is September 1). The school year that straddles two calendar years, is divided into three quarters of unequal length: the first from September to December, the second from January to March and 3ed'avril May. The tests of official exams (CEP, BEPC, Probatoire, Bachelor) take place in June, in one session (there is no catch-up session and the oral Baccalaureate was canceled in 1993), except for sports events which are often held in May.
Cameroon has eight state universities (Yaoundé I (Ngoa Ekelle), Yaounde II (Soa), Douala, Buea, Dschang, Ngaoundere, Bamenda, Maroua), ten private universities (including the Catholic University of Africa plant located in Yaounde, University of àBangangté Mountains, Adventist University of Nanga Eboko) and fifty parapublic and private academic institutions in the territory. In 2008, there were over 140 000 students. The academic year is traditionally held in October.
Media [edit | modify the code]
Main article: Media in Cameroon.
• Daily: Cameroon has a dozen daily newspapers. The best known are the Cameroon Tribune (bilingual government daily), La Nouvelle Expression, Mutations, The Day, The Messenger, The Herald, The Popoli (humorous newspaper), The News. Also counted weekly as landmarks, the independent Hurricane, Nyanga Location.
• TV channels: the audiovisual landscape has diversified considerably since the opening to the private media in the early 2000. The main public television channel, the Cameroon Radio Television (CRTV), was established in 1985 and is based Yaounde, with a station in each of the ten regions of the country.